Index

ABSTRACT

The study examined quality assurance parameters as predictors of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of correlation type. The population for this study comprised 5149 teachers of public junior secondary schools in Kwara State. The sample comprised of 640 teachers selected using the multistage sampling technique. A self-developed and validated research instrument titled “Quality Assurance Parameters and Motivation Questionnaire” (QAPMQ) was used to collect information with a reliability coefficient of 0.85. The result showed that teachers in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State had a moderate level of motivation (52.3%). The further showed that quality assurance parameters are significant predictors of teachers’ motivation (72.6% (Adj. R2= 0.726); and each of the quality assurance parameters of human resource maintenance (Beta= 0.704, t= 25.132) and data management (Beta= 0.366, t= 13.101) had significant predictions to teachers’ motivation, while funding was not significant (Beta= -0.275, t= -9.638) in Kwara State public junior secondary schools. Therefore, it was recommended that Kwara State government should not relent its efforts and continue to work collaboratively with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), philanthropists, and other stakeholders in the education sector to ensure its assurance parameters are continued and appropriately used in stimulating teachers’ motivation in the State public secondary schools.

Keywords: Data management, Funding, Human resource maintenance, Teachers’ motivation, Parameters, Quality assurance parameters.

DOI: 10.55284/ajssh.v7i1.605

Citation | Yusuf Abubakar Abiola (2022). Quality Assurance Parameters as Predictors of Teachers’ Motivation in Kwara State Public Junior Secondary Schools. American Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities,7(1): 1-10.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

History : Received: 16 September 2021 / Revised: 12 January 2022 / Accepted: 28 January 2022 / Published: 24 February 2022.

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • The study examined quality assurance parameters as predictors of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.
  • It was recommended that Kwara State government should not relent its efforts and continue to work collaboratively with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), philanthropists, and other stakeholders in the education sector to ensure its assurance parameters are continued and appropriately used in stimulating teachers’ motivation in the State public secondary schools.

1. INTRODUCTION

Across the world, teachers in the school settings are seen as essential elements, education specialists, and managers of the teaching/learning process that maximally implement curriculum to meet the national transformation agenda. Aside from this, the teacher performs many roles in the classroom; they set the tone of their classroom, build a work environment, nurture, mentor, and become a role model for the students. These roles might likely be achieved by the teacher through using varieties of methods to help motivate the students so that they will have the opportunity to take an active part in different learning activities within and outside the school. Therefore, teachers as specialists in education play a significant, valuable, and extraordinary role in the development of students in terms of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor (Ambe & Agbor, 2014).  Despite the many acknowledged roles performed by the teachers in schools, it appears that they have not been accorded the necessary attention they deserve in terms of motivation. 

Weldegebriel, Ejigu, Weldegebreal, and Woldie (2016) described teachers’ motivation as enthusiasm that stimulates intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli, both of which are important in directing and regulating their behaviours towards the attainment of fundamental goals for which schools are meant. It is worthy to note that the issue of teachers’ motivation in the education system is a general phenomenon that cannot be overlooked. The reason is that when teachers are intrinsically or extrinsically stimulated to take actions appropriately, it would enhance quality instructional delivery in the school system and the learning outcomes of students. Without mincing words, this indicates that every individual has different reasons for doing one or the other and is motivated by different motivators.  In spite of the factor that affects teachers’ motivation concerning the realization of quality in the education sector form a focal point of attention that aroused a worrisome concern.

In the sphere of education, quality assurance plays an essential role in the sphere of the education system because it is intimately tied to ensuring the achievement of the school goals and objectives (Morz, 2014). This goes in line with the common belief that quality assurance is accepted as a vital mechanism designated by the government to include monitoring, supervision, and evaluation of schools for the achievement of standards. In the view of Efraim and Evans (2018), it was found that the relevance of quality assurance measures concerning feedback acceptability is very crucial to the achievement of short-term and long-term goals of an effective education system in Tanzania. Researchers such as: Mohan (2017); Pabrekar, Sharma, Kekare, and Barve (2015) and Zaki and Rashidi (2013), found that governance and student support are parameters that helped the learners to gain high quality of learning in fashion technology institutes. Consequently, quality assurance in relation to education is seen as a process through which schools assure the standards of education and the quality of programmes based on national and international provisions and guidelines.

On this note, Elken (2015) asserted that quality assurance policies have been set up to monitor, maintain, and safeguard quality standards in any given school, as well, serve other goals like improvement of programmes and accountability towards the public. In this context, quality assurance parameters in terms of human resource maintenance, data management, and funding, put in place by the Kwara State government to ensure the standard of education were the independent variables measured in this study. Human resource management maintenance is typically concerned with the training and re-training assistance given to employees in adjusting to the work environment in terms of physical and mental health. Eze (2016) asserted that human resources maintenance is an integral part of the human resource development activity that it is used to make them to be acquainted with necessary skills and knowledge that can be used for the improvement of existing situations to solve future challenges. Hence, when human resources are appropriately maintained, it would improve systematically their level of awareness, skill in one or more areas of expertise, as well as their motivation to perform their job well.

Data management is the practice of collecting, organizing, protecting, and storing an organization's data so it can be analyzed for making informed decisions. In the view of Gye-Soo (2020) data management is the function of planning, controlling, and delivering data effectively in an organization. It was further stated by Gye-Soo (2020) that if data created is properly processed, managed, maintained, and updated appropriately, it would not only enhance the growth of the organization, but makes its aims and goals attainable.  In the study Matoke, Okibo, and Nyamongo (2015) revealed that inadequate management of teaching and learning facilities data such as laboratories, classrooms, educational training and reference materials were a source of teacher demotivation in public secondary schools in Masaba south sub-county, Kenya. Therefore, effective data cycle management helps to reduce conspicuous errors and eliminate or avoid wastage that will exponentially increase organizational efficiency.

In the study of Bejan et al. (2015), it was found that the focus of quality assurance has to do with taking deliberate steps at the institutional level to facilitate positive change, to improve the quality of teaching and learning opportunities in a co-ordinated way to make significant impacts, as well, enhance the institutions in their work. Also, Ofejebe and Ezugoh (2010) conducted a study on teachers’ motivation and quality assurance in the Nigerian educational system, it was found that adequate teachers’ motivation is a key to enhanced quality education, as such influences quality output and quality assurance in the educational system. Similarly, Agnes (2015) revealed that the motivation of teachers in Kibaha District was low as a result of poor working conditions, lack of professional training, low salary/pay, unfavorable policies on education, delays in promotions, and the community’s negative perception towards teaching. In addition, Tanriseven and Dilmaç (2013) identified that compensation, working environment (building and facilities), and evaluation procedures were the factors affecting teachers’ motivation.

Aside from the above, series of studies have been conducted on teachers’ motivation. For instance, in the study Achando (2016), it was found that the teachers in Nyamira South Sub-County were generally had moderate levels of motivation, in which, more than half (56.5%) of the teachers felt that most of the teachers in their schools were demotivated and a significant majority (69.6%) of the teacher asserted that teachers in schools in Nyamira Sub-County were highly motivated. Similarly, Fredricksson (2004) revealed that teachers’ motivation was fragile and declining based on the poor absolute value of the teachers’ salaries which was a significant factor influencing their motivation. Furthermore, deployment of staff, inadequate funding, and lack of professional development and promotion opportunities were factors attributed as the predicators of low motivation of staff in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia (Weldegebriel et al., 2016).

Concerning studies related to human resource maintenance, Irby, Lynch, Boswell, and Hewitt (2017) averred that human resource mentoring is one of the potential maintenance approaches adopted by the government for addressing the challenge of teachers’ quality. In line with this, Amin, Bakhsh, and Muhammad (2018) showed that mentoring programme serves as a means to support, engage and empower the human resource in professional learning activities that could influence their capacities in terms of skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the delivery of the curriculum as well as discharge of their duties effectively. Adebakeen and Subair (2014) reported that training and re-training of teachers are very essential in bringing about a functional education in any country. Therefore, any country that has not taken the issue of education of her citizen and quality assurance of the education system with utmost seriousness is endangering her future growth and national development.

From the foregoing, it is believed that quality assurance is an internal and external activity that provides clear directives and guidelines on the structures, roles, and responsibilities of all actors in the education system, in a bid to ensure greater motivation of academics as well as other staff in schools. Though, empirical research concerning quality assurance parameters in terms of human resource maintenance, funding, and data management as predictors of teachers’ motivation are still lacking, specifically, in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State. Considering this, it becomes imperative for the researcher to investigate quality assurance parameters (human resource maintenance, funding, and data management) as predicators of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

1.1. Statement of Problem

Quality assurance of schools is primarily done for the improvement of quality education, accountability, and transparency. In recent years, the Kwara State government through ministry of Education and hanuman capital development initiated quality assurance parameters in terms of human resource maintenance, data management, and using of counterpart funding received from the Universal Basic Education Commission purposely to improve the observed decline in the standard of education. Surprisingly, the effort seems not to have improved the situation as expected by the stakeholders.    

Consequently, upon this, teachers’ motivation has continued and consistently be at its lowest ebb and in turns/hitherto slow down the pace at which their professional duties are discharged in the school, thereby having serious and negative implications on the education system. By and large, for the public junior secondary school to be sound, strong, and of a high standard, teachers’ motivation needs to be given the serious consideration it deserves. It, therefore, becomes necessary to investigate quality assurance parameters (human resource maintenance, funding, and data management) as predicators of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

1.2. Purpose of the Study

The general purpose of this study was to examine quality assurance parameters as predictors of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

  1. What is the level of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State?
  2. Investigate the joint prediction of quality assurance parameters on teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.
  3. Examine the prediction of each of the quality assurance parameters (funding, human resource maintenance, and data management) of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

1.3. Research Questions

Based on the research objectives, one research question was raised to guide the conduct of this study.

  1. What is the level of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State?

1.4. Hypotheses

For the purpose of achieving the research objectives, the following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at a 0.05 significance level.
Ho1: There is no significant prediction of each of the quality assurance parameters on teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.
Ho2: There is no significant joint prediction of quality assurance parameters on teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

2.1. Research Design

In this study, the research design adopted was a descriptive survey of correlation type. Orodho (2009) described a descriptive survey of correlation type as an attempt used by the researcher to collect data from members of a population in order to determine the current status of that population concerning one or more variables without manipulations. In line with the research, this design was considered more appropriate because it enables the researcher to obtain systematic and valid information from a representative sample to investigate quality assurance parameters as the independent variable and of teachers’ motivation as the dependent variable.

2.2. Population of the Study

Population refers to the entire group of people, events, or things of interest that the researcher wishes to investigate (Sekaran & Bougie, 2010). Consequently, the population of the study comprised all the 9,527 teachers in 464 public junior secondary schools in Kwara State (Kwara State Ministry of Education and Human Capital Development Annual School Census Report, 2018/2019).

2.3. Sample and Sampling Techniques

The sample for this study comprised the 392 teachers selected from 49 public junior secondary schools in Kwara State. These samples were selected through the use of the multistage sampling technique. First, a proportionate sampling technique was used to select seven LGAs across the three senatorial districts in the State, Kwara South (3), Kwara central (2), and Kwara North (2). In the second stage, a systematic random sampling technique was used to select seven schools from each of the sampled LGAs. In the last stage, a simple random sampling technique was used to select eight teachers from each school.

2.4. Instrumentation

To achieve the purpose of this study, one research instrument was carefully designed by the researcher in line with the research purposes for the collection of data in this study. The research instruments are: Quality Assurance Parameters and Motivation Questionnaire” (QAPMQ). The QAPMQ has two sections (A and B).  Section ‘A’ contained information on teachers’ demographic variables such as: gender, area of specialization, and highest qualification. Section ‘B’ contained information on quality assurance parameters patterned on four points modified Likert Scale format ranging from 4 points for Excellent (E), 3 points for Very Good (VG), 2 points for Good (G), and 1 point for Fair (F) respectively.        

2.5. Validity of the Instruments

To accomplish the validity of the QAPMQ, its initial draft was given to three experts in Educational Management Department, Faculty of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife for necessary inputs and corrections so that the instrument captures the intended variables which it purports to measure for face and content validity. This was done in line with Zohrabi (2013) who stated that validity of the instrument is ensured by a panel of education experts who are judges or lecturers rating of suitability and clarity of each item and evaluates its fitness in the definition of the construct. In this regard, the researcher ensured that all the identified inputs and corrections in the QAPMQ were incorporated in the final draft before they were administered to the respondents.

2.6. Reliability of the Instrument

To ensure the QAPMQ consistency, the researcher subjected it to trial testing, in which, a pilot study was conducted on public junior secondary schools teachers that are not part of the study for two weeks intervals, the data obtained were correlated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and a reliability coefficient index of 0.73 was obtained.

2.7. Procedures for Data Collection

For efficient and effective data collection in this research work, different stages were involved. Foremost, the researcher obtained permission from the school authority and facilitate personal interaction with the respondents. After this had been done, the QAPMQ was administered by the researcher. This was done in conjunction with the assistance of three research assistants that were trained on how to use the observation instrument. After all the instruments had been filled, it was retrieved those found usable for analysis were reported. The data collection lasted for six weeks. The first week was used for the training of the research assistants and the remaining five weeks were used for the administration of the QAPQ.

2.8. Method of Data Analysis

Data collected in the study on the research questions raised were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage scores and inferential statistics of Multiple Regression Analysis was used to test the hypotheses formulated at a 0.05 level of significance.

3. RESULTS

Research Question One: What is the level of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State?

Table 1. Level of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

Teachers’ Motivation
Frequency (f)
Percentage (%)
Low
49
12.5
Moderate
205
52.3
High
138
35.2
Total
392
100.0

Source: Field Work, 2021.

Data in Table 1 shows the level of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State. As shown in the Table, out of 392 (100.0%) of the teachers that participated in this study, only 49(12.5%) reported that they had a low level of motivation, 205(52.3%) had a moderate level of motivation, while 138(35.2%) had a high level of motivation. It can be inferred from this finding that about 52.3% of the teachers in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State had a moderate level of motivation. The implication is that teachers of public junior secondary schools in Kwara State are stimulated by the efforts made by the Kwara State government to ensure quality in the education system.

Ho1: There is no significant influence of quality assurance parameters (human resource maintenance, funding, and data management) as predictors of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

Table 2a. Regression analysis of joint predictors of quality assurance parameters (Human Resource Maintenance, Funding, and Data Management) on teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

Model
R
R Square
Adjusted R Square
Std. Error of the Estimate
1
0.853a
0.728
0.726
0.42038

Note: a. Predictors: (Constant), Human resource Maintenance, Funding, Data Management.

Data in Table 2a showed the model summary of regression analysis of joint predictors of quality assurance parameters yielded a coefficient of multiple regressions R= 0.853 and multiple R-square= 0.728 on teachers’ motivation Kwara State public junior secondary schools. The shows that quality assurance parameters combined accounted for 72.6% (Adj. R2= 0.726) variance in the prediction of teachers’ motivation, leaving 27.4% explanation capability to other unstated factors. It can be inferred from this analysis that the hypothesis which states quality assurance parameters had no significant prediction to teachers’ motivation Kwara State public junior secondary schools is, therefore, rejected. Hence, quality assurance parameters are significant predictors of teachers’ motivation Kwara State public junior secondary schools.

Further analysis of the joint contribution of quality assurance parameters to teachers’ motivation Kwara State public junior secondary schools Table 2b.

Table 2b. F-test analysis of joint predictors of quality assurance parameters (Human Resource Maintenance, Funding, And Data Management) on teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

Model
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
1
Regression
183.309
3
61.103
345.770
0.000b
Residual
68.566
388
0.177
Total
251.875
391

Note:
a. Dependent Variable: Teachers’ Motivation.
b. Predictors: (Constant), Human resource Maintenance, Funding, Data Management.

Data n Table 2b also shows the F-test analysis of joint predictors of quality assurance parameters (human resource maintenance, funding, and data management) on teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State. The F-statistics value is 345.770 with the degree of freedom 3 at an alpha level of 0.05.  The outcome of the analysis indicates that the reported F-statistics is significant (0.000) and less than the alpha level of 0.05 indicating that the model is fit. The implication of this is that quality assurance parameters jointly have significant prediction on the teachers’ motivation.

Table 3. Analysis of the prediction of the quality assurance parameters (funding, human resource maintenance, and data management) of teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State.

Model
Unstandardized Coefficients
Standardized Coefficients
t
Sig.
B
Std. Error
Beta
1 (Constant)
1.862
0.258
7.213
0.000
Human resource maintenance
0.643
0.026
0.704
25.132
0.000
Funding
-0.583
0.060
-0.275
-9.638
0.000
Data Management
0.447
0.034
0.366
13.101
0.000

Note: a. Dependent Variable: Teachers’ Motivation.

Data in Table 3 shows the result of the prediction of the quality assurance parameters (human resource maintenance, funding, and data management) to teachers' motivation indicating its beta weight and t-value. As shown in Table, the beta weight of human resource maintenance with a beta weight of 0.704 and t-value of 25.132; funding with a beta weight of -0.275 and t-value of -9.638; and data management with a beta weight of 0.366 and t-value of 13.101 From the values of beta weights and t-values for the independent variables, it is shown that human resource maintenance had the highest prediction to the dependent variable of teachers’ motivation. Next is data management and followed by funding which had the least prediction at 0.05 level of confidence. The implication of this finding is that human resource maintenance and data management had significant predictions for teachers’ motivation, while funding was not significant.

4. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

The result showed that teachers in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State had a moderate level of motivation. The implication is that teachers of public junior secondary schools in Kwara State are stimulated by the efforts made by the Kwara State government to ensure quality in the education system. The finding coincides with the finding of Achando (2016) who found that teachers in Nyamira South Sub-County were generally had moderate levels of motivation, in which, more than half (56.5%) of the teachers felt that most of the teachers in their schools were demotivated and a significant majority (69.6%) of the teacher asserted that teachers in schools in Nyamira Sub-County were highly motivated. The finding contradicts the finding of Agnes (2015) who showed that the motivation of teachers in Kibaha District was low as a result of poor working conditions, lack of professional training, low salary/pay, unfavorable policies on education, delays in promotions, and the community’s negative perception towards teaching.

The further showed that quality assurance parameters are significant predictors of teachers’ motivation. The finding is in agreement with the finding of Elken (2015) who found that quality assurance policies have been set up to monitor, maintain, and safeguard quality standards in any given school, as well, serve other goals like improvement of programmes and accountability towards the public. The finding also corroborates the finding of Eze (2016) who found that human resources maintenance which serves as an integral part of the human resource development activity is one of the quality assurance measures that is used to enable them to get acquainted with necessary skills and knowledge that can be used for the improvement of their motivation and existing situations to solve future challenges.

The result showed that each of the quality assurance parameters of human resource maintenance and data management had significant predictions to teachers’ motivation in the schools, while funding was not significant in Kwara State public junior secondary schools. The finding concurs with the finding of Gye-Soo (2020) who found that data created processed, managed, maintained, and updated appropriately not only enhanced the growth of the organization, but makes its aims and goals attainable. The finding is in contrast with the finding of Matoke et al. (2015) which showed that inadequate management of teaching and learning facilities data such as laboratories, classrooms, educational training, and reference materials were a source of teacher demotivation in public secondary schools in Masaba south sub-county, Kenya.

5. CONCLUSION

Given the findings of the study, it can be concluded that some quality assurance parameters have the propensity to perk up teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State. Specifically, quality assurance parameters in terms of human resource maintenance, and data management made significant predictions to teachers’ motivation in public junior secondary schools in Kwara State, while the prediction of funding and data management were found not significant.

6. RECOMMENDATIONS

In line with the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Government should not relent its efforts and continue to work collaboratively with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), philanthropists, and other stakeholders in the education sector to ensure its assurance parameters are continued and appropriately used in stimulating teachers’ motivation in Kwara State public secondary schools.
  2. Some other quality assurance parameters in terms of students’ orientation, provision of facilities, and the likes are required to be put in place by the government to increase their motivation in Kwara State public secondary schools.
  3. Funds should be made available to ensure that quality education is enhanced in Kwara State public secondary schools. 

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