International Journal of Economics, Business and Management Studies

Volume 7, Number 1 (2020) pp 190-201 doi 10.20448/802.71.190.201 | Research Articles


The Impact of Training and Development Programs on Employees Performance: The Case of Lebanese SMEs

Hani M Haidoura 1
1 American University of Culture and Education, Lebanon.


Training is an agency's effort to encourage training between its employees and development is an effort which is more focused on developing an employee's abilities for potential responsibility. Professional development programs have implications for motivating and involving the employees in an attempt to improve performance. Training and development is an initiative by an organization to encourage the education of its staff, and learning is an emphasis on improving the future accountability capabilities of an employee.  Training and development are a constant effort to improve workplace skills and organize productivity in order to improve workforce capability and output. In certain developed countries, such as Great Britain and the Economic Development of China, human capital training has played an important role. Such opportunities can also be found in a developing country such as Cameroon, with an abundant natural source of energy and financial support, if the development and mentoring of its human capital is given due consideration. Both components and activities in an entity involve human beings. For starters, managers would not be successful if a manager had subordinates who were not adequately prepared with experience, qualifications, abilities, and skills Some of the main objectives of human capital leadership is to create the conditions by which workers ' latent ability will be noticed and their dedication to the organization's achievement protected. The research implemented the quantitative methodology throughout distributing the questionnaires using the survey methodology and then analyzing the collected data using the SPSS statistical tool. The results showed a direct relationship between the mentioned variables since the regression analysis showed a relation below than 5%.

Keywords: Instructor led, E-learning, Knowledge management, Training, Development, Employees performance.

DOI: 10.20448/802.71.190.201

Citation | Hani M Haidoura (2020). The Impact of Training and Development Programs on Employees Performance: The Case of Lebanese SMEs. International Journal of Economics, Business and Management Studies, 7(1): 190-201.

Copyright: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

Funding : This study received no specific financial support.

Competing Interests: The author declares that there are no conflicts of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

History : Received: 29 June 2020 / Revised: 5 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020.

Publisher: Online Science Publishing

Highlights of this paper

  • The research implemented the quantitative methodology throughout distributing the questionnaires using the survey methodology and then analyzing the collected data using the SPSS statistical tool.
  • The results showed a direct relationship between the mentioned variables since the regression analysis showed a relation below than 5%.


Training and development is an initiative by an organization to encourage the education of its staff, and learning is an emphasis on improving the future accountability capabilities of an employee (German, Sultana, Paul, & Azeem, 2010).  Training and development are a constant effort to improve workplace skills and organize productivity in order to improve workforce capability and output.

In certain developed countries, such as Great Britain and the Economic Development of China, human capital training has played an important role. Such opportunities can also be found in a developing country such as Cameroon, with an abundant natural source of energy and financial support, if the development and mentoring of its human capital is given due consideration. Both components and activities in an entity involve human beings. For starters, managers would not be successful if a manager had subordinates who were not adequately prepared with experience, qualifications, abilities, and skills.

The institution's productive staff are employed to operate an organization, either major or minor. The curriculum does not adequately teach particular job abilities, skills, expertise, and knowledge required in the workforce.

In workers to be productive and worthy of acquiring knowledge and skills, they must see positive indicators of management dedication to their training needs and to feel they are respected by the organization for which they operate. Not just technical skills, but an integral part of the organization, must also be appropriately taught to each new employee Training and Development are a function of each enterprise, and its primary purpose is to improve workforce capability so that the company can optimize the human resources ' operational performance.

Such an organization can be beneficial if it wins "the heart and minds of its workers" and has them fixed by the institution (Armstrong & Yousif, 2009). In workers to work effectively, there has to be an advantage in training programs. Such practices are part of the talent management plan that motivates staff to succeed. Coaching varies however in terms of the value and amount of the coaching factors from organization to entity and may include, for example, the magnitude of changes in the environment, the level of improvement in the internal environment, existing suitable staff skills as well as the degree in which managers find preparation as an incentive for practice (coaching). Most organizations address their educational needs in such an unconventional and systematic way that preparation is spontaneous and ambiguously defined in such businesses. Nonetheless, different companies tend to distinguish their training needs, so take a look and workout regularly and then assess the results of the instruction.


Training and Development practices were defined as a critical component to meet business goals and ambitions. In order to maintain financial and practical products, it is essential to optimize personnel adherence to the goals and objectives of Armstrong (1999). The main goals of human capital leadership are to create the conditions in which employees ' innate talents are valued, and the commitment they have to their success is preserved. Professional development strategies have the potential that inspires and engage staff to improve results. Chang (1994) argues that both the coaching initiative appraisal needs to clarify how training leads to a substantial identity as it is applied to improve work performance. The study showed a strain in organizations as a consequence of employees ' diminished expertise in certain activities. Some of the shortcomings of these employees are not adequately handled, contributing to penalties, disqualification, dismissal, or termination in the workforce. The investigator must point out how seriously companies consider preparation and its success consequences.


The main goal of this research is to learn how knowledge improves work performance and the productivity of an organization. Other objectives are to ascertain if professional development programs exist for organizations and if the plan is for all staff, the performance of examining the obstacles to the implementation and the specific effects of a professional development program has to be established in this regard. Eventually, preparation to overcome the challenges was needed to determine employee vulnerabilities.

However, the research questions that will be addressed in the research will be proposed as follows:

  • What is the relationship between training and development and the performance of Small Medium Enterprises SME?
  • What is the relationship between compensation benefits and Small Medium Enterprises SME Performance?
  • What is the relationship between instructor-led and Small Medium Enterprises SME performance?
  • What is the relationship between E-Learning and Small Medium Enterprises SME Performance?


HR's primary functions are training and development.  Most organizations regarded training and development as a central role in human resources planning action. At the turn of the century, companies internationally concentrated on the same. The reality that technology advances quickly and thus reduces workplace expertise needed to perform the job, several companies have demanded annual training hours for workers to provide them with the latest information. The effort to concentrate and develop skilled employees ' level of competence in the area of success can be described as teaching. Training is carried out to improve productivity and results.

It should be designed to address workers ' desires and target individual abilities in order to achieve effective and efficient preparation and should be applied in a learning environment. "HRM includes various aspects, one of which is teaching and has been proclaimed to draw very great attention from scholars and scholarly writers (Claydon, Ho, Frankel, Jones, & Bello, 2014). Different meanings and assumptions on the topic were provided to the extensive research carried out in preparation. Claydon et al. (2014) said training is to prepare and schedule the subject activity, in order to acquire some knowledge level that needs to take place during the event learning process, activities, and programs.  Such knowledge learned and new skills are essential for productive work. It should be noted that academic researchers continue to study and focus on their ultimate and critical significance in the broad area of education. Many researchers claim that the appreciation of learning also needs to be higher than current training, and the explanation for this is because the companies investing in educating their staff and their value in the capital have a strong influence on the relative success (Beardwell, Kowang, Ismail, & Rasid, 2014).

Beardwell et al. (2014) proceed to note that the rapid development of technology gives employers an insight into the desires that the productivity of companies improves through the expertise, skills, and improvements of staff through acquiring the knowledge they need to render their work performance effective.

A lot of time is mistaken for growth both are distinct from each other but elements of the same structure in certain respects. Training requires opportunities to develop and expand workers. The preparation that depends on the current job is unlike preparing for the long term. It is also not exclusive to the current organization's work directions, but may also touch on other growth factors. Likewise, other companies tend to choose such employees in order to educate and plan them for future jobs. This is done based on the employee's current attitude, expertise, experience, and efficiency. Many management plans are planned to be of such a nature in order to train and motivate members for future positions. That renders preparation and growth special is that training depends on workers ' current needs, while advancement is associated with preparing staff for new tasks and positions to be expected in the future.


Employees ' performance is typically measured and evaluated about metrics and outcomes. The actions of Armstrong 2000 can also be analyzed with the mindset. Saidi and Qoku (2012) discussed the possibility of measuring employee performance using the performance standards established by the organization.

The method of calculating the expected return of the employee's productivity is considered to be the gross profit figure. The aspects of effectiveness and efficiency are the power to produce the aimed outcomes by the use of the minimal resources as possible while effectiveness is the ability of staff to adhere to the aimed outcomes and targets (Haji & Bashir, 2013).


The results  of the employees are typically assessed and analyzed. The behavior (Armstrong, Jones, & Bello, 2000) with the attitude can also be examined.  Saidi and Qoku (2012) discussed the possibility of measuring the employee's output using performance standards developed by the organization.

The calculating method should be defined as the gross profit ratio for the expected return of the employee's productive job. Productivity factors are the ability to produce the outcomes through the use of minimal capital as much as necessary because productivity ensures that workers have the ability to achieve the priorities and goals set out (Haji & Bashir, 2013) . The productivity element is indicated as the performance of the input ratio. It is the calculation of how the person, business and sector turn the input capital into end products and services according to the line of work. The amount of production is determined per unit of capital used in the cycle (Taleghani, Jones, Julien, & Body, 2013) .  When a certain requirement has been met, the standard characteristics of the services delivered are expected to satisfy the customer (Kotler & Imran, 2002) . It should always focus on producing quality finished products that can deliver more competitive prices.

Any company's main management role is to insure that the optimal performance levels are achieved by workers during all times. The elements of the setting of targets and proper encouragement are linked to this phase and to this critical aspect of employee performance.

Industries ensure that workers contribute entirely to the development of high-quality products. Therefore, the function of the workers will be illustrated and will be displayed for the measurement units in the development of their final products with their expected facets of consistency and want.

The management method allows the staff to engage in the preparation of their business objectives, and their encouraging involvement in the whole cycle produces the necessary motivational factors to accomplish the high and desirable standards of the product.

It is worth mentioning that the management of performance includes activities that help to achieve and efficiently achieve organizational goals. The performance management stresses the importance of focusing on employee performance, and the amount of research into this topic while thinking about employee satisfaction underlined that workers who are happy with their jobs always have higher work output

6.1. Relationship between Motivation and Career Development

The motivation of the company's employees plays a direct role. Highly motivated workers tend to give higher productivity than those who did not work. In order to increase efficiency and to accomplish the business goals effectively and efficiently, the Manager must focus on inspiring his employees.

A research was done on how motivation is relevant and its effect upon organizational efficiency, and the study was carried out in the US with 200 participants working in retail companies. The research conducted an investigation and a summary of the data collected. A study of regression was conducted to assess whether or not inspiration affects career development. The findings have shown a positive correlation between career progress and motivation. As the growth and preparation activities are carried out, workers become empowered, and, in effect, the turnover rate declines, and the retention rate increases to pursue career development in the company.

6.2. Relationship between Compensation and Career Development

Compensation benefits can be defined as awards, bonuses, promotion of benefits and others which are given at work in order to inspire workers to improve their performance and achievements. Organizations must therefore strive to inspire staff to make more attempts to improve their performance.

Talented and skilled workers must however be provided to boost work performance and to reduce the loss of personnel at levels. Therefore, understanding the desires of the workers in the workforce and trying hard to meet them to maintain and improve their performance is essential for the management. Nonetheless, there are variations in job expectations at work.

Therefore, what motivated Person X does not motivate Person Y. Many workers may request for financial incentives, while others may call for job appreciation. The department manager's role is to identify the interests of workers and better compensate them. Work on the connection between reimbursement and education and growth initiatives was conducted. In a given sample of 100 respondents, he applied both quantitative and qualitative strategies. The study analyzed the data obtained using the SPSS predictive system and interpreted the findings in the graphs, chi-square, and regression tests.

The results show that increasing the pay incentives are introduced, the more workers are driven to engage and to achieve greater success and efficiency in training and development systems.

6.3. Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Career Development

Job Satisfaction plays an integral part in motivating employees and in enhancing career development. Under a highly motivated environment, workers can gradually increase their efficiency and thus accomplish the company's goals and objectives effectively. Nonetheless, in order to ensure job satisfaction at work, different processes must be used within the organization and in communities. The main key elements that have to be implemented for work to ensure job satisfaction are known to be performance evaluations. Previous Studies has studied the relationship between work satisfaction and services for training and development. In a given sample of 300 respondents in South Africa, he applied both quantitative and qualitative strategies. The scientist analyzed the data obtained using the SPSS statistical method and looked at the findings of regression analysis.  The results showed that the greater the employee satisfaction, the higher the degree of employment and efficiency in training and development programs.

6.4. Relationship between Empowerment and Career Development

The link between workplace satisfaction and professional development at work is evident. This helps employees to take part in the decision-making process to achieve the objectives of the company.

Empowering workers at work can, however, improve their productivity and thus increase their success in the company's growth and progress.

The main objective of inspiring workers is to efficiently direct them so that they can act by questioning the administrators of the organization. Managers can engage in decision-making at work in order to boost the workplace participation rate and thus raise productivity and the degree of job satisfaction at work. 

Previous studies has reported a good relationship between ability and employee performance, which helps to direct potential employees to effectively and efficiently carry out their duties. 

Empowering workers at work improves employees ' morale and interaction with their client bosses. Empowering workers, therefore, can increase the happiness, collaboration, and interest of employees in the business they represent.

Claydon et al. (2014) conducted research on the partnership between leadership and training and development systems to provide workers with the power and authority to regulate others and implement change measures to improve their organizational efficiency. In a given sample of 700 respondents in Nigeria, he applied the quantitative method. The scientist analyzed the data obtained using the mathematical SPSS method.

The results showed a positive correlation between prosperity, employment and growth and career development programs. The more workers invest in training and development activities at work, the higher the capacity-building levels represent higher work efficiency.

6.5. Effect of Training on Performance

A number of factors and aspects influence progress and corporate advancement in the present world. Worker engagement is a key factor in improving performance for increasing productivity addressed in the substance of present research in the stage of organizational growth. This will in turn increase the profits for the companies involved and boost the company's performance.

Recent research has shown that the results of training and development are related to an employee's efficiency. Several experiments have been carried out in order to look at the employee's results from this angle, while other scholars have applied their viewpoint to a broader organizational context

In the argument above, it had been discussed the possibility of modifying and developing the ability of an individual by training programs. The implementation of such initiatives will thus in turn boost the employee's overall performance and give additional talents the understanding that the individual is most likely to benefit for a greater future job which will also support the company.

Throughout previous research on the success of the employee and its connection with the training process, interesting findings have shown that the preparation by the expertise and ability development has a positive influence.

Seeing that instruction is a means of reducing the capacity deficiency and reduces achievement deficits arising from lack of skills and experience, has been highlighted by other instances of research and studies.

Previous studies connected the performance gap with the introduction of training necessary for further development of the knowledge and skills needed for the success of employees. He explained that the organization's demands could not suit its workers ' expertise and efficiency, and therefore the training and development systems had to be expanded.

The curriculum has numerous advantages arising from its programs, and when the strategies are well designed they are effectively accomplished. The organization is thus very well suited for the plan, the professionals delivering the instruction and the employees or individuals who are on the receiving end.

Previous scholars addressed that the proposed training is an operational well-organized initiative to provide the skills needed to improve work performance.

Kenney and Reid add that there are training phases which must be followed: Define and define the training needs, assess the abilities and skills needed for the training to match it with the aims of the training program and, ultimately, review training and allow teachers to examine the students they have undercut.


Locke and Lathan (2002) studied the effect of their actions on the overall performance of the company. Most of the organisations are aiming at creating a plan to identify priorities and targets for their operations.

The efficiency is reached throughout the entire process by making a significant attempt to pay them through their bosses. If employees work hard, they expect that the top management will get something in exchange.

In other terms, bonuses affect the performance of workers in the workforce directly. The main objective of the cognitive theory, with respect to previous research, is to analyze the relationship between the principal interaction variables.

McEntire (2012) encourages workers to develop their organizational abilities and create functional constructs that are consistent with their templates and climate. Therefore, when researching such a question in the workforce, cognitive psychologists do not agree with certain standards and regulations.

Second, Tahir, Langer, Mehra, Gopal, and Gupta (2014) conducted an investigation into the impacts of training and development on efficiency and profitability of workers. The goal of this inquiry is to study the effect of training and development on the success and efficiency of employees utilizing 80 questions.

In comparison, in Laing's (2009) work Laing related to the training and development impact on staff's success in the public sector, and this review seeks to provide an overview into the public sector influence on employment. He also stated that in the country of Ghana and the Harbor Authority there has been a case study. However, Ramia (2016) also indicated that in some previous research, the connections between corporate success and human resources management practices is strong and positive.


The information outlined was mainly based on secondary data gathered from different resources to help us understand our topic and the context in which this research would take place. The purpose of this research was to make the participants understand better their viewpoint and to reflect it. Nevertheless, these study data are reliable and will allow us to provide a skewed interpretation of circumstances. Analysis has used a sample focused on nearly completed queries.

In specific, the data were obtained using a  SPSS analytical kit for the creation and analysis of the output and independent (training and development and compensation) effects of the dependent variable.

Nevertheless, in addition to other incentives (leaving benefits, retirement plans, monetary or non-monetary income), pay aims at researching salary and monetary rewards in the workforce and stressing the effect of wages on the success of workers in Lebanese Small Medium Enterprises.

In terms of training and growth, the goal is to explore how SMEs foster continuing education and professional learning and how SMEs help to make the workforce more competitive and productive.


The questionnaire was circulated to 120 workers, but only 100 replied.
The study comprises SME staff of various ages, roles, years of experience and numerous places in the different SMEs.


Several instruments can be used to analyze the collected data The SPSS predictive method is used to evaluate the collected data. Regression evaluation is a correlational test designed to measure the association between the research variables. It is based on a 5% error norm. There is a significant association if the relevance threshold is less than 5 percent, and vice versa. Validity and reliability is a tool used to prove the validity and reliability of data collected on the basis of a Cronbach Alpha criterion for quantitative analysis. The indicator will have a value of 0.7 and higher to imply valid information.


The following research questions will be addressed in the research to validate the research hypotheses:

  • What is the relationship between training and development and performance?
  • What is the relationship between compensation and performance?


Based on the above mentioned variables, the following research hypotheses will be constructed to validate them later on throughout the research:
A: Training and Development:
H0: There is no relationship between training and development and performance.
H1: There is relationship between training and development and performance.
B: Compensation
H0: There is no relationship between compensation and performance.
H1: There is relationship between compensation and performance.


The sample was split into 120 workers and 100 responded to the questionnaire. The findings are reported as follows.

13.1. Regression Analysis

Table-1. Regression Analysis.

Model Summary

R Square
Adjusted R Square
Std. Error of the Estimate

Note: a. Predictors: (Constant), Compensation, and Training and Development.


Unstandardized Coefficients
Std. Error

Note: a.Dependent variable: Performance.

The findings suggest that professors are likely to have a favorable effect on the workforce's performance, contributing to improved output and quality as managers and staff share ideas at work.
Lead coach works at empowering colleagues and improving their work experience. The larger the system-led by the instructor the higher the rate of turnover and the lower the retention rate, tends to be calculated by absenteeism and attrition.

  • There is an interrelation among compensation and performance is acknowledged (0.002).
  •  There is an interrelation among training and development and performance is acknowledged (0.015).

The strength among the variables tend to be strong since the R-Square showed a level of 71.4% which means that the independent variables strongly affect the dependent variable, and by that the relationship among the research variables tend to be strong.


Table-2. Pearson Correlations.
Training and Development
Person correclation
Sig. (2-tailed)

The study Pearson correlations was done to determine if a positive or negative association between the variables is centered on a Pearson coefficient. This requires validating the findings as follows:

  • Positive correlation among compensation and performance (0.713).
  • Positive correlation among training and development and performance (0.830).

This means the results can be validated as follows:

  • Training and Development.
  • H0: There is no relationship between training and development and performance is rejected.
  • H1: There is relationship between training and development and performance is accepted.
  • Compensation
  • H0: There is no relationship between compensation and performance is rejected.
  • H1: There is relationship between compensation and performance is accepted.


The key findings of the study can be based on the assumption that there is a clear encouragement and achievement correlation, since the higher the engagement the better the efficiency. This is based on the fact that professional development and recruitment are connected as if workers are moving by individuals, training and development activities are conducted to improve their performance and reinforce their careers.

In comparison, the results of the study found a major correlation between Electronic learning and productivity schemes, since the greater the performance of the professional development programs. Performance evaluations are required to identify the weaknesses and strengths of the workplace and to draw on which professional development programs are applied to enhance efficiency and increase growth and understand such initiatives.

Learning, growth and incentives are nevertheless two important factors that can inspire workers to increase productivity. If the employee feels pleased, he or she is kept in the workforce, and thus encouraged to pursue training and development programs, which improves the profitability of the business to clients and decreases profits.

When SMEs make strides towards adaptability, efficiency and steady growth, it ensures a positive relationship to boost execution with the citizens and not with each other.

Nonetheless, pay benefits are usually relevant for improving the performance of SME staff, since research findings suggest that the more bonuses are sometimes offered to employees and the higher their productivity and therefore their profitability. The stronger the bonus rewards. Nonetheless, the results show that Person X is not a motivation for Person Y, suggesting that some staffs are financially motivated, while other personnel focus on non-financial rewards.

Furthermore, the findings show that e-Learning and the teacher appear to have a positive effect on the efficiency of employees in SMEs, as they have a propensity to develop their knowledge through online platforms. This is seen as one of the important factors for improving the performance of workers at work. Yet e-learning is creating a pool of information in the workforce and aims at exchanging this knowledge between employees and managers as management of knowledge is deemed one of the most important criteria to be met by e-learning as a method for increasing productivity and achieving better performance.

The study focused on improving the efficiency of the workforce. The findings showed that the shortage of remuneration incentives, the growth of talent, e-learning and coaches may have led to workers switching from their working environment seeking better opportunities.

The results showed that the higher the workforce's job experience, the greater the workforce's efficiency. The training and development can be defined as including staff in daily operations and is carried out through the transfer of roles and duties to the managers.

The more preparation and improvement in the working environment becomes, the better the efficiency, which will bring in greater growth. This is seen as an important element to be addressed in a job environment.

By comparison, salary packages continue to be a major aspect, having a significant effect on employee turnover. The stronger the pay value the greater the productivity and improved performance, illustrating the economic benefit and non-financial benefits of two forms of remuneration. The financial advantages include pay increases, promotions, bonuses, and non-financial advantages.

E-learning has a significant impact on the performance of SMEs. E-learning is one of the most viable advanced technology to ensure efficient and productive coaching and market comprehension through organizations. E-learning is therefore considered to be one of Lebanese institutions ' most widely relevant programs.

The mentor has had a positive impact on work performance in the organization, because it will result in increased efficiency and performance through exchanging ideas between employees and managers in the working environment.

The  instructor seems to be inspiring and empowering workers to increase their workplace efficiency. The degree of absenteeism and income is determined when the lower the termination rate and thus the higher the retention rate, the more instructor-led classes are carried out.


The study encountered several obstacles, including the minimal variables discussed by the research as this work is broad and seen as a major restriction to answer all the variables. The period was also restricted and it was difficult to maintain data collection because certain staff refused to answer those questions because of secrecy.

The research did not investigate a specific case study and the sample being studied is therefore broad, which implies that the findings of this analysis refer only to the sample being investigated.

At last, the analysis just explored the quantitative approach and was unable to discuss the qualitative technique to analyze how supervisors think about the impact on the success of workers in training and development.


However, following are the recommendations which are suggested to be implemented in the research to enhance the outcomes:

  • The implementation of both the qualitative and quantitative methodology.
  • Addressing a defined case study over a defined SME which has many branches to be able to collect data.
  • Studying factors other than the ones addressed in the research.
  • Addressing higher number of population in order to maintain accurate records.
  • Performing seminars about the processes which should be conducted.


The employee engagement can be described as the ability to keep the most skilled and respected employees in the business from losing their employment. The willingness to collaborate with some organisations can also be debated constantly.

Policies and practices may also include employee retention, which can allow the SME to maintain its most valuable employees and not to let them down. It can provide many incentives to help the employee support and keep him or her in the business, for example promotion after a certain time and work performance.

SMEs will offer their talents and energy to inspire workers and improve employees ' loyalty to the business. One of the main elements of SME survival could be the ongoing recruiting of skilled staff.

Retention of well-devoted, loyal employees who deserve to live within the business could also be a means to save money and be an effective way for the organization. It can be a concern that the current employer or company did not pay heed and ignored the employee's termination costs.

In addition, the introduction of professional development schemes, instead of losing to competition, would allow the company to improve and maintain the talents of its skilled employees. It is possible to identify the weaknesses and strengths of the employees throughout the assessment process and to engage them in professional development programs to use their skills.

The through the contribution of practitioners to professional development services, the more they are able to work. More and more people are encouraged to perform additional tasks and commitments.


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About the Authors

Hani M Haidoura
American University of Culture and Education, Lebanon.

Corresponding Authors

Hani M Haidoura

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